There’s been a bit of a debate recently about whether historical fiction writers should add bibliographies to their books or not. Hilary Mantel, a woman who likes to put cats among pigeons, commented in an interview with Diarmaid MacCulloch on her “cringing” contemporaries in historical fiction who “try and burnish their credentials by affixing a bibliography.”

She goes on to say this: “You have the authority of the imagination, you have legitimacy. Take it. Do not spend your life in apologetic cringing because you think you are some inferior form of historian. The trades are different but complimentary.”

My immediate response was a highly sophisticated one. ‘Fuck right off dearie.’  I mean – what got into her? A case of getting out of bed the wrong side? Too much steak for breakfast?

A few things come into play here for me:

  1. My father was a historian and I spent a great deal of my childhood listening to him grumbling about inaccurate historical detail in TV dramas. At the time I remember wishing he’d shut up so I could follow the story
  2. I studied history at Oxford not particularly happily
  3. My last two books – FAR AWAY and TITIAN’S BOATMAN have been historical fiction and I’ve attached bibliographies to both of them.

The reason why I do it is not particularly to “burnish my credentials”. I mean what the hell does that mean anyway?  It’s because I think the reader might be interested to read some of the books that have fired my imagination. As a reader I like bibliographies and often track down books from them. I appreciate the fact the writer has taken the trouble to do it. It is work to put together a bibliography. It would be much easier not to do it.

I do not in any way feel cringing.

There is of course another element in play here. In creating a bibliography you are giving away your sources. I like that because there’s a part of me that likes to demystify the process of writing. I want you as my reader to know that fiction writing is not a mystery carried out by magicians. You too could read these books and you might write this sort of book. It sort of democratizes it in some way. Sometimes it does occur to me that a reader might read the books in my bibliography and go, ‘Well, you got that wrong didn’t you?’ Or even, ‘So that’s where you pinched that from,’ but so what?  Bring it on!



As a reader of historical fiction I give the writer a fair amount of latitude. After all it’s fiction. I did a history degree and I know the difference; fiction is much more enjoyable! When I read it I do not assume every little thing is accurate. I expect the main big things to be right i.e. the date of a battle or the date of some one’s death but sometimes things can be disputed. For example no one knows exactly when Titian was born so as a writer you take your pick within a certain range and stick to it.

However I very much like the idea of someone who has read my book then reading the things I have enjoyed in researching the book: Pietro Aretino’s letters are great fun – he’s fantastic and I’d like as many people as possible to have the pleasure of reading him. And aren’t you curious to read the letters and poems of a Renaissance courtesan, Veronica Franco? Those closest to me have had me banging on about them for years so why not spread the love? Don’t we all take pleasure in word of mouth recommendations? Why not make that easy for the reader? Books I have read and not enjoyed like Paul Morand’s Venices, an unbearably portentous book, I didn’t include.

One of the characteristics of a cult leader is that it all comes from them personally. It is their genius as opposed to the fact that they might have cobbled together a bit of CBT, a bit of EST and a bit of mindfulness and mixed it with a bit of charisma and bobs your uncle. Never trust an individual who doesn’t acknowledge their teachers, who doesn’t acknowledge their sources, who makes it all about their genius. I don’t want you to think it’s all me. I don’t want you to think it’s all my talent as a writer because that’s not what I believe.

I like the idea of you following your nose into my research material and may be thinking, ‘Oh, look at this juicy element. Why didn’t she use that?’  I’d quite like that. I’d like to know what your story might be. I  don’t want it to be mysterious because it isn’t. I remember when I was in my twenties and all I knew was that I wanted to write but I had no idea what to do or how to do it. I did courses, I had teachers, I read books on writing, I joined writing groups.  I still have teachers. All those elements contributed to me becoming and staying a published writer.

So what do you think about bibliographies? Apologetic cringing or an act of generosity to the reader? Do you think I have been burnishing my credentials? I’d be very interested to know and when I say interested that’s in a slightly Tony Soprano/horse head in the bed sort of a way. Only joking. I just want you to realize this is an entirely cringe-free zone from a non-cap doffing person. Excuse me, dear reader, while I walk backwards away from you in a suitably groveling, servile manner while begging you for comments … Oh God, what happened there?  Maybe Hilary was right all along. PS You should all read her books – every one of them. Every single one. She’s a genius, she really is. She’s just completely wrong on the subject of bibliographies.


  1. I agree with you. As a reader if I see a bibliography I’m pleased the author has suggested further avenues for me to explore if their novel has fired my interest. I don’t see it as them trying to justify their work. If it’s fiction, they can do whatever they like if it serves the story!

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Methinks Ms. Mantel is fussing over nothing. If a work of fiction contains a bibliography, I’m intrigued! As a reader, I love making connections from one book to another, by review, author, topic research, etc. It’s how I find new writers and plumb new ideas. I appreciate the guidance and inspiration when an author bothers to share the crumbs with a bibliography. And on occasion, I’ve been disappointed when a writer did not note particularly significant sources behind the fiction (e.g., Wallace Stegner, Angle of Repose).

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  3. Haha! If you challenge Ms Mantel to a duel, can I be your second? I’ve donned my hard hat before replying, just in case you haven’t had a calming cup of chamomile yet, but – I don’t care! There! I’ve said it! Being totally honest, I don’t read bibliographies in either factual or fictional books – I also rarely read introductions, afterwords, dedications, acknowledgements or ISBN numbers! (The exception is if I’m reading a specific edition for review, when I feel obliged to mention the introduction, if there is one.) No, the story’s the thing – if it’s a period I know something about, then I’ll snort a bit if I think the author has it wrong but unless it’s wild – like Henry VIII remaining happily married to one woman for his whole life – then I don’t mind some artistic licence. And if it’s a period I know nothing about (99% of the time, then), then I just assume the writer is an expert – unless the book abounds with anachronisms, in which case I throw it at the wall…

    But I don’t mind the existence of bibliographies for those who like them… 😉

    Liked by 1 person

    • Hi FF – it’s OK a cup of Snore and Peace has turned me into my usual benign/ comatose self! In fact zzzzzzzzzz oh, where am I? I like the idea of H8 being happily married to one woman – I can feel a bit of alt/history coming on …

      Liked by 1 person

  4. So beautifully put and I couldn’t agree more. I love bibliographies and I’m always disappointed when they’re not included. It’s the pleasure of being invited to go deeper into the subject, which has sparked the writer’s imagination. I think only the most suss writer would want to conceal his or her sources.

    Liked by 2 people

  5. I love bibliographies!
    After all, the whole world should know about Aretino and his masterful creation of sexual euphemisms.
    One of the great strengths of your writing is your ability to create atmosphere, and how else are you going to do that in an historical novel than by reading other sources?

    Liked by 1 person

  6. Although ereaders have many deficits, one benefit–at least for some of them–is that you can highlight a name place, character, topographical feature, street name, historical figure, etc., — and get an immediate explanation.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Hi Alan – yes, that’s true and I use my ereader more and more. Especially for research because being able to highlight on an ereader is useful and something I can’t bring myself to do in paper books.


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